Hemerocallis hakuensis (gold, left, 36") and Hemerocallis citrina thunbergii (yellow, right, 70")


The Hemerocallis species are of interest to people who wish to know more about the history and development of the daylily. Many species have unique characteristics and an understated natural beauty that lends themselves to centerpiece plantings, cottage gardens and more.

One mostly overlooked aspect of daylilies, including the species are their culinary, nutritive and medicinal value. Daylilies have been used for centuries as a source of food and medicine. Almost all if not all part of the daylily can be eaten. There is some indication of adverse effects of the leaves in some people, primarily severe diarrhea but it may be related to quantity, age or preparation of the leaves. There is no indication that daylilies (Hemerocallis) are poisonous in any way.

Hemerocallis species have some issues as to true identification. The various species interbreed very easily and can produce offspring which are similar to the parents but with differences in bloomtime, shape and color. The daylilies described on these pages are our best guess as to species types. Some of the species originated from Dr. George Darrow, others were acquired from additional sources. We are constantly looking for new species or new sources for some of the same species in order to verify the true identity of the species.

There are some species which we can't grow here in Vermont as they are evergreen and do not survive the winter. Other species such as H. sempervirens and H. lilioasphodelus are slow increasers but survive the winters just fine.

There is also a daylily species named after Dr George Darrow. its is called Hemerocallis darrowiana. It has never been grown in cultivation and is only found on the Sakhalin Island which is north of Japan.

This link will tell you a little more about this daylily H. darrowiana



For further information, a good source of original information is A.B. Stout's book, Daylilies, originally published in 1934, it was reprinted in 1986, by J.M Dent and Sons, London. A more up to date reference is The New Daylily Handbook An updated anthology based on the classic 1968 Am. Hort.Soc. Daylily Handbook republished by the Am Daylily Soc. in 2002.


Hemerocallis sp. in its native habitat in Japan. Coexsisting with various other herbaceous plants on presumably what is a seaside meadow. It is not clear which species this is though.

Hemerocallis (hem-er-o-kal-lis), the botanical name for daylily means in Greek ''beautiful for a day'. Each flower only opens for one day. After it is spent, it is succeeded by the next day's blossom. Established clumps bloom vigorously for weeks and weeks.

 Hemerocallis citrina (right) next to a large Tetraploid hybrid cultivar.Note the different characteristics between the two types.


The daylily is a monocot related to Orchids, Hostas and Grasses. Daylilies were originally thought to be in the the Lily family (Liliaceae) but are now placed in their own family Hemerocallidaceae. and are in the genus Hemerocallis . Daylily species were originally found in Manchuria, Mongolia, Northern India as well as throughout China, Japan and Korea. In their natural habitat daylilies are found in swamps, seashore meadows, forests edges and on mountains up to 10,000 feet.

While there was some hybridizing of daylilies in the early 1900's however it wasn't until the 1930's when Dr. A.B. Stout ( New York Botanical Garden link to A B Stouts's archives) began to working with daylilies, hybridizing and identifying the species that they really took off. Dr Stout did extensive breeding work and developed dozens of hybrids. Since then daylilies have become nearly as popular as roses. They are collected, grown and hybridized by people around the world.

It is amazing to think that from approximately 20 species of daylilies over 65,000 varieties of daylily hybrids have been developed. While the colors of most species are orange, yellow or rarely pinkish there are now daylily hybrids in shades of red, purple, near white and more! With so many daylily varieties to choose from why would one want to grow daylily species?

Besides the historical interest of growing a species there are many traits that makes a species desirable. First and foremost in our opinion is the simple natural lines and form that species exhibit. The trumpet or simple star shapes of the blooms, the graceful narrow foliage and the loose growth habit of many of the species is delightful and fits into most landscaping designs. Secondly as plants that have evolved over millions of years they contain potential adaptability that may not be present some of the more modern cultivars. Finally from a breeding standpoint the species may contain genetic material that
could produce new yet undiscovered traits.

The daylily species listed below are arranged by bloom time here in Vermont


Hemerocallis minor


Usually the earliest daylilies to bloom. This yellow daylily has scapes only 10-12 long, 3" star shaped blooms and low grass-like foliage. Hem. minor seems to have a relatively short bloom time as well lasting only about 2-3 weeks.
Hemerocallis minor: A photo from Dr A Stout, note the grass-like foliage
Hemerocallis minor foliage: Notice the small short bracted scapes. 

Hemerocallis dumortieri

Hemerocallis dumortieri is frequently one of the first daylilies to bloom here in Vermont. We have also noticed that this is one of the most fragrant daylilies, surpassing Hem. lilioasphodelus. Vigorous and exteremly hardy this species blooms early and well for us regardless of the winter and spring conditions. The red backed sepals add the the attractiveness of this plant. Foliage is blue-green and noticeably spikey.

Hemerocallis dumortieri: star shaped golden yellow blooms 4" across are produced on 26" scapes.


The red buds of Hem. dumortieri are distinctive. There is the potential for heavily pigmented scapes in Hem. dumortieri hybrids
Pigmented hybrid link
Hemerocallis dumortieri has distinctive spikey blue-green foliage. This is clear in this image
of a large stand stand growing in May, here in Vermont

Hemerocallis middendorfii
Hemerocallis middendorfii is particularly notable for it's fast increase and strong bloom early in the seaon. blooming reliably en masse, with flat golden blooms  in early June here in Vermont. Foliage is a plain green.
A profuse bloomer, H. middendorfii puts on a splashy show in June.
Somewhat less spikey and distinctively spring green coloration. 
Wavy edged squat bracts are very characteristic of H. middendorfii.
 These illustrations from the Am. Hort. Soc. show both growth habit and the characteristic short bract.
 Amazingly adaptable and a vigorous competitor, we have it growing in semi-shady spots with ferns.

Hemerocallis lilioasphodelus
The so-called Lemon Lily this daylily species is also quite early although consistently blooming after Hemerocallis dumortieri and Hemerocallis middendorfii. The color is a clear lemon yellow and has a distinct fragrance. Hemerocallis lilioasphodelus has a somewhat stoloniferous spreading habit but is a slow grower here in Vermont. One of the first daylilies introduced into the U. S., it is sometimes found near old abandoned cellar holes, a testament to daylily's longevity.
Less clumping than the other early blooming Hemerocallis species, the foliage is blue-green and spikey.Hem lilioasphodelus is not particularly vigorous and so creates loose clumps.  seems to prefer a damper location as well.
Interestingly the Am Hort Soc illustration seems to indicate a more clumping plant than we have seen here at Olallie Daylily Gardens.
Hemerocallis flava 'Major is supposedly a larger type of Hemerocallis lilioasphodelus. Blooms are larger with more substance.
H. flava 'Major' has larger denser foliage that grows into clumps with no spreading habit. No real noticeable fragrance either.

 Hemerocallis fulva

Commonly known as the Orange Roadside Lily, the Ditch Lily or even Tiger lily is probably the best known daylily in the U.S. if not the world. With an aggressive spreading habit and tall showy orange blooms, it never fails to make an impression. This daylily is frequently considered a weed, but planted in the right location, this plant can outcompete other weeds and/or act as an erosion control.

H. fulva was the first daylily to be imported into Europe and then America from China.


An Am. Hort Soc. illustration clearly showing the running habit of Hemerocallis fulva.


A complex mix of orange, red and yellow, the color combination is actually quite stunning. The color carries for a long way



 Hemerocallis fulva 'Kwanso" is a spreading variant with double blossoms. The spreading habit is the same, but the bloom time is a little later. The extra petals, made up of the sepals can make for a frilly show!


Below is the rarer variegated version of "Kwanso'. Sometimes the new shoots of a variegated clump's leaves can revert to all green and so the all green shoots must be removed in order to retain a variegated stand, as the variegated fans are less vigorous that the all green fans.




Hemerocallis fulva hybrids 

Oddly the majority of Hemerocallis fulva found worldwide (I believe) is a sterile clone. As a Triploid it is not self compatible. Rarely a seed pod is produced through a series of unusual and rare events. Dr A Stout, through persistence was able to produce some H. fulva hybrids. These hybrids are much like H. fulva in coloration, bloomtime and growth habit, but none have the spreading rhizomatous habit.

Linda: A pale version of a H. fulva hybrid. This cultivar is a very vigorous grower, much like H. fulva.


Baghdad, a more subdued orange-red mix.


An unknown H. fulva hybrid type of unknown origin growing here at Olallie Daylily Gardens, this hybrid does have a spreading habit.


 Hemerocallis hakuensis


Hemerocallis hakuensis begins blooming in early July here in Vermont. H. hakuensis produces numerous orange-yellow trumpet-shaped blooms. Good growth and high seed set are characteristic of this species. H. hakuensis can produce up to 35 buds per scape and blooms well into August.


Large clumps of open heavily branched scapes are characteristic of the H. hakuensis we grow here at Olallie Daylily Gardens


Vibrant green clean dense growing foliage is characteristic of H. hakuensis.



Hemerocallis altissima


Hemerocallis altissima like most of the Hemerocallis citrina complex is tall and vigorous and seems to be very disease resistant.  Hemerocallis altissima produces lemon yellow blooms on scapes up to 5-6 feet tall. The H. altissima pictured here was originally from Dr George Darrow. 


Hemerocallis altissima scapes are extremely straight, with upward facing blooms. The spent scapes can be quite persistent as is evidenced by this photo which shows last years scapes, amongst currently blooming scapes.


The foliage of Hemerocallis altissima is a pleasing deep green.


Hemerocallis citrina

Also called the Citron lily has a lemony scent and is nocturnal. Flowers open late in the day and remain open through midday the next day. Trumpet shape,lemon yellow spider-like blooms are typical of H. citrina. Here H. citrina blooms along with Geranium 'Johnson's Blue", July 8, 2007.


Vigorously growing, with immaculate foliage.  H. citrina types can grow quite tall.



Masses of late opening fragrant blooms appear in July and August.


H. citrina roots are unusual as they mostly seem to lack the bulbous roots that the H. fulva types and other species exhibit.


 Hemerocallis citrina vespertina


A large Tetraploid daylily on the left, Hemerocallis hakuensis (36")in the middle and Hemerocallis citrina vespertina (72")


Hemerocallis citrina vespertina is an a variant of H. citrina and depending on the taxonomy is a subspecies or a seperate species. Extremely tall with wide branching it makes a wonderful show and has huge breeding potential. Hemerocallis citrina vespertina blooms from mid July into the end of August.


Extremely tall, up to and even over 6 feet. (182 cm) with heavy branching and high bud counts, H citrina vespertina produces a masses of blooms over a long time period (July-August here in Vermont)


Pale lemon yellow trumpet shaped blooms 


The foliage of Hemerocallis citrina vespertina like all the citrina types is spikey, and blue green in coloration. The dead foliage is surprisingly resilient, as is evidenced by this image.




 Hemerocallis citrina thunbergii



Hemerocallis citrina thunbergii, appears virtually identical to H. citrina thunbergii but blooms about 2 weeks later and thus into September.  A vigorous grower as are all the H. citrina types this cultivar also has lots of hybridizing potential.


Hem. citrina thunbergii blooming late in August.



Hemerocallis multiflora




Hemerocallis multiflora produces and unbelievable number of buds, upwards of between 40-80 buds per scape are possible. Hemerocallis multiflora with tiny 2.5-3" blooms will bloom well into September here in Vermont. The foliage is upright much like the H. citrina types.

Hemerocallis multiflora is typically described as having orange colored blooms. This variant is more yellow and came from Dr George Darrow.



Photographed from below, the enormous number of buds is evident. Buds are quite small as are the seed pods. The seeds are unusually small as well.



Multiple branches are characteristic too it seems. 




Hemerocallis sempervirens


Hemerocallis sempervirensis a particularly late blooming species, beginning in mid to late August here in Vermont. The coloration and spreading habit seem to indicate a relation to Hem. fulva.

 Hemerocallis sempervirens does not grow very vigorously in Vermont. But has survived the winter with no problem.



Hemerocallis sempervirens foliage exhibits a somewhat loose spreading habit but doesn't increase as quickly and aggresively as H. fulva. 




Seedpods are distinctly oblong.

Hemerocallis coreana




 Hemerocallis coreana is a relatively new acquisition. H. coreana does not seem to be a very vigorous grower or bloomer here in Vermont.


Miscellaneous Hemerocallis hybrids growing at Olallie Daylily Gardens

These are hybrids that are known to be closely related or appear to be species types. Most were developed here or came from Dr G Darrow others are from other sources


 Hemerocallis citrina X Hemerocallis hakuensis (Halinar)

This cross was obtained from J Halinar (CA).  This hybrid of Hem. citrina and Hem. hakuensis exhibits some of the characteristics of both species, the lemon yellow color of H. citrina and the trumpt shape of H. hakuensis.


Tetrina's Daughter

A Tetraploid derivation of H. citrina  with many of the characteristics of H. citrina. 

 The article listed below have been gleaned from the web (1/2017). Most are from scientific research projects but a few are more anecdotal, from sources close to the original Chinese use for Daylilies.

In general it seems that there are a number of components that can be extracted from daylilies. Many seem to have beneficial attributes including, Pesticidal, Antioxidant, Immune Boosting, and even anti-depressant effects.

There are some articles discussing extraction techniques in regard to efficiency and stability. Finally a few articles discuss the genetic variation in wild populations and the locations of these populations.


Various natural components isolated or identified in Daylilies: including a number with antioxidant properties: 7 articles

Neurological effects of Daylilies:2 articles

Pesticidal Atrributes of Daylilies: 2 articles

Tolerance to Soil Contamination: 1 article

Extraction and Analysis of Hemerocallis Constituents: 2 articles

 Analysis and Discussion of the genetic variation of a variety of Hemerocallis (Daylily) species: 2 articles



 Various natural components isolated or identified in Daylilies: including a number with antioxidant properties.

Antioxidant compounds  

As part of our search for sedative substances derived from natural sources, two novel nitrogen compounds, kwansonine C (1) and oxypinnatanine A (2), and two novel salts of quinic acids (4) and (5) were isolated along with four known compounds, fulvanine A (3), icariside D2 (6), sallidroside (7), and (3S,4S)-3,4-dihydroxy-3-methyldihydrofuran-2-one (8), from Hemerocallis fulva L. var. sempervirens. These structures were elucidated by spectroscopic evidence and chemical methods.


 Antioxidant compounds 

Isolation and Characterization of Stelladerol, a New Antioxidant Naphthalene Glycoside, and Other Antioxidant Glycosides from Edible Daylily (Hemerocallis) Flowers



Daylily (Hemerocallis spp.) flowers are utilized as an important ingredient in traditional Asian cuisine and are also valued for their reputed medicinal effects. In studies of the bioactive methanol and aqueous methanol extracts of lyophilized Hemerocallis cv. Stella de Oro flowers, kaempferol, quercetin, and isorhamnetin 3-O-glycosides (19), phenethyl β-d-glucopyranoside (10), orcinol β-d-glucopyranoside (11), phloretin 2‘-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (12), phloretin 2‘-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranoside (13), a new naphthalene glycoside, stelladerol (14), and an amino acid (longitubanine A) (15) have been isolated. All of these compounds were tested for their antioxidant and cyclooxygenase inhibitory activities. Stelladerol was found to possess strong antioxidant properties, inhibiting lipid oxidation by 94.6% ± 1.4 at 10 μM in an in vitro assay. Several of the flavonol 3-O-glycoside isolates also demonstrated modest antioxidant activities at 10 μM. None of the isolates inhibited cyclooxygenase activity at 100 μM.

 Antioxidant compounds 

Lipid peroxidation inhibitory compounds from daylily (Hemerocallis fulva) leaves


Daylilies (Hemerocallis spp.) have been used as food and in traditional medicine for thousands of years in eastern Asia. The leaves of the plant are used in the treatment of inflammation and jaundice. In studies of the aqueous methanol extracts of fresh Hemerocallis fulva leaves, 1′,2′,3′,4′-tetrahydro-5′-deoxy-pinnatanine (1), pinnatanine (2), roseoside (3), phlomuroside (4), lariciresinol (5), adenosine (6), quercetin 3-O-β-d-glucoside (7), quercetin 3,7-O-β-d-diglucopyranoside (8), quercetin 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyransol-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranosol-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (9), isorhamnetin-3-O-β-d-6′-acetylglucopyranoside (10) and isorhamnetin-3-O-β-d-6′-acetylgalactopyranoside (11) were isolated. All of these compounds were tested for their in vitro lipid peroxidation inhibitory activities. Compounds 35 and 711 were found to possess strong antioxidant properties, inhibiting lipid oxidation by 86.4, 72.7, 90.1, 79.7, 82.4, 89.3, 82.2, and 93.2%, respectively at 50 μg/mL. Compound 1 is novel and compounds 36 and 811 described here in are isolated for the first time from daylily leaves.

 Antioxidant compounds 

Determination of lutein and zeaxanthin and antioxidant capacity of supercritical carbon dioxide extract from daylily (Hemerocallis disticha)


Lutein and zeaxanthin were extracted from daylily (Hemerocallis disticha) flowers using supercritical fluid extraction-carbon dioxide (SFE-CO2) at a temperature range of 50–95 °C and pressure range of 300–600 bar. The extracts were analysed by HPLC with a C30 column and an isocratic solvent system: methanol/methyl-tert-butyl ether = 86/14 (v/v). Moreover, the antioxidant capacities of the extracts were evaluated by a 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay and a chemiluminescence assay to measure the scavenging activity of hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical. The optimal lutein and zeaxanthin extraction could be achieved at 80 °C and 600 bar, and the extraction pressure was the most important parameter for SFE-CO2. In addition, the extracts had significantly higher antioxidant activities in all antioxidant assays.


► Two major compounds, lutein and zeaxanthin, were identified in daylily flowers employing a very simple HPLC methodology. ► The optimal lutein and zeaxanthin extraction of SFE-CO2 could be achieved at 80 °C and 600 bar. ► The extraction pressure was the most important parameter for SFE-CO2. ► Daylily flowers extracts had higher antioxidant activities in all antioxidant assays.


 Antioxidant compounds , A mannose specific lectin (or protein binds to many viruses, bacteria and yeasts and so presumably has a antibiotic effect?

A new mannose-specific lectin from daylily (Hemerocallis fulva L.) rhizome: purification and properties


A new lectin was purified from the daylily (Hemerocallis fulva L.) with the yield of approximately 10 mg per kg of fresh plant rhizome. The purification procedure was based on application of the affinity chromathography on the column with yeast mannan and the ion-exchange chromatography on the column with DEAE-Toyopearl. The lectin possessed low affinity for alpha-methyl-D-mannopyranoside, D-fructose, D-turanose and 2-acetamido-D-galactopyranose and hight affinity for the yeast mannan. The lectin bound with greatly less affinity for the mannose-containig glycoproteins, such as ovoalbumin, ovomucoid and horseradish peroxidase. According to the results of electrophoresis in 20% DSNa-PAGE, the lectin consists of subunits of 12 kDa molecular weight. According to the results of gel-chromatography on the Toyopearl HW-55, the lectin's molecular weight is 48 kDa. It agglutinated rabbit erythrocytes very well, while rat and guinea-pig erythrocytes were agglutinated worse, and human erythrocytes were not agglutinated at all. Lectin's dialysis against 1% EDTA or heating to 60 degrees C for 60 min did not stop its hemagglutinating activity.


Antioxidant compounds  

Total Phenol Content and Antioxidative Activity of Fractions from Hemerocallis fulva Leaves


 In this study, the total phenol content and antioxidative activity of fractions from Hemerocallis fulva leaves were evaluated in terms of reducing power, superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity, the inhibitory effect on linoleic acid autoxidation and metal-ion (Cu2+) chelating effect. Among five fractions, the ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest total polyphenol content (749 mg Chl/g), and also exhibited an excellent reducing power (1.16∼3.35 at 100∼500 Ռg/ml). SOD-like activities of the chloroform-and ethyl acetate-fractions at the concentration of 100 Ռg/ml showed 33.3% and 22.3%, respectively. In addition, the chloroform fraction showed the highest inhibitory effects (77.5∼90.2% at 25∼100 Ռg/ml) on linoleic acid autoxidation system. Metal-ion (10-4 M CuSO4) chelating effect of the butanol-and ethyl acetate-fractions at the concentration of 100 Ռg/ml showed 30.2% and 36.7%, respectively. Among the fractions, the ethyl acetate fraction exerted the highest total phenol content and the strongest antioxidative activity. These results indicate that H. fulva may be useful as potential antioxidant sources for improving human antioxidant defense system. (Cancer Prev Res 17, 18-263, 2012)


Antioxidant compounds 

An evaluation of novel biological activity in a crude extract from Hemerocallis fulva L. var. sempervirens M. Hotta

Hemerocallis fulva L. var. sempervirens M. Hotta (kwanso) represents an exceptional resource for identifying and developing new phytomedicines for the treatment and prevention of disease. The aim of this study was to conduct a detailed investigation of the biological activities of kwanso. Our study resulted in four major findings. First, kwanso scavenges hydroxyl radicals generated by H2O2/UV light system in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Second, hepatic glutathione levels were significantly increased when kwanso was orally administered to mice. Third, the oral administration of kwanso to mice showed a tendency to suppress hepatic injury induced by acetaminophen. Finally, kwanso slightly inhibited cytochrome P450 3A activity. These results provide useful evidence in support of the development of kwanso as a candidate raw material for the treatment and prevention of disease.

 Neurological effects of Daylilies

The title pretty much sums it up. Antidepressant-like effects.

Antidepressant-like effects of the hydroalcoholic extracts of Hemerocallis Citrina and its potential active components



Herbal therapies are potential alternatives and adjuncts for depression treatment. The present study aims to investigate the antidepressant-like effects of hydroalcoholic Hemerocallis citrina extracts and its potential neuropharmacological components.


Hydroalcoholic H. citrina extracts were phytochemically analyzed. Behavioral models, including tail suspension tests and open field tests, were performed to evaluate the antidepressant-like effects of the extracts. A possible mechanism was explored by analyzing brain monoamine neurotransmitters. Toxicity and histopathological analyses were performed to determine whether or not the extracts are safe for oral administration.


The antidepressant-like effects of hydroalcoholic H. citrina extracts were mainly related to flavonoids, especially rutin and hesperidin. The extract prepared using 75% ethanol (i.e., HCE75) exhibited the highest active flavonoid content and activity. Orally administered 400 mg/kg of HCE75 significantly induced an antidepressant-like effect, whereas the combination of equivalent rutin and hesperidin dosages exhibited the same profiles. Isobologram analysis showed sub-additive antidepressant interactions between rutin and hesperidin. HCE75 (400 mg/kg, p.o.) increased the serotonin and dopamine levels in the central nervous system. Mortality and lesions were not observed upon oral administration of up to 5000 mg/kg HCE75.


The antidepressant-like effects of hydroalcoholic H. citrina extracts are mainly related to flavonoids, especially rutin and hesperidin. The serotonergic and dopaminergic systems may have major roles. The active extract is toxicologically safe for oral administration.


 Another view on the "neurotrophic factor" in Hemerocallis

Ethanol extracts from Hemerocallis citrina attenuate the decreases of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, TrkB levels in rat induced by corticosterone administration.

"Hemerocallis citrina (daylily) is a plant widely grown in East Asia that has antibacterial [10], antioxidant [11], and nitrite-eliminating activities [12]. H. citrina has been clinically efficient in relieving depression in patients aged 11 to 80 years [13]. A previous study showed that the ethanol extract of Hemerocallis fulva has an antidepressant-like effect, in which rutin is believed to have an important role [14]. The ethanol extract of H. citrina has been recently reported to elicit antidepressant-like effects depending on monoaminergic systems [15]. Some researchers have also suggested that such activity of the ethanol extract is at least partly mediated by neurotrophic [16] and inflammation systems [17]. However, the relationships between specific H. citrina neuropharmacological activities and its flavonoid components remain uninvestigated. The scientific evaluation of its antidepressant effects are still not convincing."



Hemerocallis citrina, a traditional herbal medicine, has been used for the improvement of behavioral and emotional status in Eastern-Asia countries.


Our previous studies have demonstrated that the ethanol extracts of H. citrina flowers (HCE) reversed the behavioral alterations and monoamine neurotransmitter dysfunctions in stressed mice. However, the relation of its antidepressant-like action with neurotrophic molecular expressions remains unknown.


To clarify this, we explored the effect of HCE (32.5, 65, 130mg/kg, p.o.) on the behavior, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor (TrkB) in depression-like rats induced by exogenous administration of the stress hormone corticosterone (40mg/kg, s.c.).


It was observed that repeated administration of corticosterone induced an elevation on the serum corticosterone levels, which caused the abnormalities observed in the sucrose preference test and forced swimming test (FST). Administration of HCE (65 and 130mg/kg) reversed the changes above and up-regulated the BDNF and TrkB receptor protein expressions in the brain region of frontal cortex and hippocampus.


These findings confirm that HCE produce an antidepressant-like effect in corticosterone-induced depression-like model of rats and this effect is at least partly mediated by BDNF-TrkB signaling in the frontal cortex and hippocampus.

 Pesticidal Attributes of Daylilies

 An extract of Hemerocallis fulva 'Kwanso' was found to have some efficacy against a pathenogenic trematode.

Kwanzoquinones A–G and other constituents of Hemerocallis fulva ‘Kwanzo’ roots and their activity against the human pathogenic trematode Schistosoma mansoni


Schistosomiasis is a debilitating disease caused by parasitic trematodes of the genus Schistosoma that afflicts 200 million people worldwide. Daylilies (Hemerocallis spp.) have been used in Asia for the treatment of schistosomiasis; however, the active principles have not been fully characterized. In our studies of Hemerocallis fulva ‘Kwanzo’ Kaempfer roots, we have isolated seven new anthraquinones, kwanzoquinones A (1), B (2), C (4), D (5), E (6), F (7), and G (9), two known anthraquinones, 2-hydroxychrysophanol (3) and rhein (8), one new naphthalene glycoside, 5-hydroxydianellin (11), one known naphthalene glycoside, dianellin (10), one known flavone, 6-methylluteolin (12), and α-tocopherol. The structures of the compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical methods. Compounds 111 and the monoacetates of kwanzoquinones A and B, 1a and 2a, respectively, were tested for their activity against multiple life-stages of Schistosoma mansoni. Compound 3 immobilized all cercariae within 15 s at 3.1 μg/mL. However, upon removal of the compound, 20% of the immobilized cercariae recovered after 24 h. In contrast, compound 6 immobilized cercariae within 12–14 min at 25 μg/mL. Following removal of the compound, all cercariae died within 24 h. The adult worms were also immobilized within 16 h by compounds 3 and 6 at 50 μg/mL. None of the compounds had an effect on the schistosomula stage.


 Plant extracts were found to have anti-microbial activity

Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Investigation of Hemerocallis fulva L. grown in Egypt+


Column chromatography of the chloroform extract of Hemerocallis fulva afforded chrysophanol, methyl rhein, l,8-dihydroxy-3-methoxy-anthraquinone and rhein. The unsaponifiable matter yielded a long chain hydrocarbon, a long chain ester, a long chain alcohol and β-sitosterol. The aqueous fraction yielded choline. The structures of these compounds were established on physico-chemical bases and direct comparison with authentic samples. The plant extracts as well as some isolated compounds have shown antimicrobial activity.

 Tolerance to Soil Contamination

 H. middendorfii grown in petroleum contaminated soil survived well, and could be utilized for such areas. Interestingly, a change in metobolites was observe in the roots when grown in contaminated soil, though the siginificance is unknown! 

Rhizospheric Mechanisms of Hemerocallis middendorfii Trautv. et Mey. Remediating Petroleum-contaminated Soil and Metabonomic Analyses of the Root Systems


The effects of a special ornamental plant Hemerocallis middendorfii Trautv. et Mey. on remediating petroleum-contaminated soil from the Dagang Oilfield in Tianjin, China, was studied by a greenhouse pot-culture experiment and the gradients of TPHs were 0, 10,000 and 40,000 mg · kg⁻¹. The results suggested that H. middendorfii had a high tolerance to TPHs (≤ 40,000 mg · kg⁻¹). And H. middendorfii significantly (P < 0.05) promoted the removal rate of TPHs (53.7% and 33.4%) compared with corresponding controls (31.8% and 12.0%) by natural degradation, respectively. The relative abundance of amino acids, organic acids and sugars and others in soil were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and PCA and PLS-DA models were to investigate the rhizospheric mechanisms. The results suggested that H. middendorfii changed the distribution characteristics of each component in soil, and the glucopyranoside played a key role in the removal of TPHs. Furthermore, the results about comparative metabolic profile showed that some special metabolites were only found in the contaminated groups, including alanine, tetradecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid and 9,12-octadecadienoic acid. Additionally, the exposure of TPHs changed the primary metabolic flux of roots, and caused the significant (P < 0.01) change of metabolites. In conclusion, H. middendorfii might be an enduring ornamental plant for effective remediating TPHs (≤ 40,000 mg · kg⁻¹) in soil. But the exposure of TPHs had changed the metabolic profile of H. middendorfii in roots, which might be the metabolic response of H. middendorfii to petroleum-contaminated soil.


Extraction and Analysis of Hemerocallis Constituents


analysis of various extracts of daylilies in regard to stability, analysis and techniques.




The analysis and stability of carotenoids in the flowers of daylily (Hemerocallis disticha) as affected by soaking and drying treatments were studied. The various carotenoids in the flowers of daylily were analyzed using a reversed-phase C30 HPLC column and a mobile phase of methanol/methylene chloride/2-propanol (89:1:10, v/v/v) with methanol/methylene chloride (45:55, v/v) as sample solvent. Twenty-one pigments were resolved, of which 14 carotenoids were identified, including neoxanthin, violaxanthin, violeoxanthin, lutein-5,6-epoxide, lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, all-trans-β-carotene, and their cis isomers, based on spectral characteristics and Q ratios. Prior to hot-air-drying (50 °C) or freeze-drying, some of the daylily flowers were subjected to soaking in a sodium sulfite solution (1%) for 4 h. Under either the hot-air- or the freeze-drying treatment, the amounts of most carotenoids were higher in the soaked daylily flowers than in those that were not soaked. With hot-air-drying, the amount of cis carotenoids showed a higher yield in soaked samples than in nonsoaked samples. However, with freeze-drying, only a minor change of each carotenoid was observed for both soaked and nonsoaked samples. Also, air-drying resulted in a higher loss of carotenoids than freeze-drying.



Ultrasound-synergized electrostatic field extraction of total flavonoids from Hemerocallis citrina baroni.


The total flavonoids from Hemerocallis citrina baroni are regarded as a green and natural health care product with many beneficial impacts on human health. In this study, ultrasound-synergized electrostatic field extraction (UEE) of the total flavonoids (TF) from H. citrina was investigated. Significant independent variables of the extraction, including the electrostatic field, ultrasonic power, ethanol concentration and extraction time, were optimized using the Box-Behnken (BB) method, and the optimal extraction conditions were obtained by response surface methodology (RSM). The extraction yield using UEE was compared with the yields obtained using only ultrasound extraction (UE) and water bath extraction (WE), using a UV-vis spectrophotometer. The best extraction yield of 1.536% using UEE was achieved under the following optimal conditions: electrostatic field of 7kV, ultrasonic power of 500W, ethanol concentration of 70% and extraction time of 20min. The optimal solid-liquid ratio (1:25g/mL) and extraction temperature (55°C) were determined by single factor experiments. Compared to other extraction methods, UEE not only increases the extraction yield of TF but also exhibits an excellent antioxidant activity in assays of the scavenging capacity for DPPH, hydroxyl and superoxide anion radicals. The availability of the UEE method can be supported by the ultrasonic cavitation effect, which plays the most important role in the UEE method. The electrostatic field can be regarded as a random disturbance for sonication, which can strengthen the cavitation effect and increase the cavitation yield. Moreover, the amount of iodine release in potassium iodide solution well validated the synergetic effect between the ultrasound and electrostatic field.




 Analysis and Discussion of the genetic variation of a variety of Hemerocallis (Daylily) species

Examines the variation in genotypes in several different Hemerocallis species. There is a discussion of native locations.

Natural hybridization of Korean Daylily species seems to be rare though no explanation of why this is the case is not mentioned

Morphometric analysis of the genus Hemerocallis L. (Liliaceae) in Korea : Journal of Plant Research


To better understand the patterns of variability and distributions ofHemerocallis in Korea, 53 locations were visited and measurements of 19 morphological and phenological characters were taken on plants directly from their natural habitats. For morphometric analysis, 10 plants from each of 34 populations and five herbarium specimens ofH. middendorffii were used and the data from 12 quantitative characters was analyzed using univariate analysis. Except the littoral populations of Cheju, Hong, Taehuksan, and Sohuksan Islands (H. hongdoensis M. Chung & S. Kang), three peninsular KoreanHemerocallis species can be recognized mainly in South Korea:H. hakuunensis Nakai (=H. micrantha Nakai, growing on southern, central, and northwestern Korea);H. thunbergii Baker (=H. coreana Nakai, found on southeastern and central Korea); andH. middendorffii Tr. et Mey. (central and northeastern Korea). Morphological and phenological features contributing to recognition of the three groups were; color of perianth, shape of roots, shape of inflorescence, flowering time, odor, length of inflorescence, width of the lowest bracts, length of perianth tube enclosing a ovary, width of the inner perianth lobes. Natural hybridization seems to be rare in KoreanHemerocallis. It appears that the KoreanHemerocallis species are relatively well characterized by their distribution patterns, phenology, and habitats compared with the JapaneseHemerocallis species.


The species Hemerocallis hakuensis exhibits a high level of genetic variation within a daylily stand but interestingly a lower level over the H. hakuensis population as a whole. Apparently there is also evidence of some inter species hybridization with H thunbergii.

Genetic variation and population structure in Korean endemic species: IV.Hemerocallis hakuunensis (Liliaceae) :

Journal of Plant Research


Hemerocallis hakuunensis, a Korean endemic species, maintains considerably higher levels of allozyme variation within populations (meanHe=0.253) and substantially lower levels of allozyme divergence among populations (meanGST=0.077) than average values reported for other insect-pollinated, outcrossing herbs. Indirect estimates of the number of migrants per generation (Nm=3.00, calculated fromGST;Nm=3.57, calculated from the frequency of nine alleles unique to single populations) indicate that gene flow has been extensive inH. hakuunensis. This is somewhat surprising when we consider the fact that no specialized seed dispersal mechanism is known, flowers are visited by bees, and the present-day populations of the species are discontinous and isolated. Results of a spatial autocorrelation analysis based on mean allele frequencies of 19 populations reveal that only 13% (95/720 cases) of Moran'sI values for the ten interpopulational distance classes are significantly different from the expected values and no distinct trend with respect to the distance classes is detected. Although it is unclear how the populations are genetically homogenous, it is highly probable thatH. hakuunensis might have a history of relatively large, continuous populations that had more chance for gene movement among adjacent populations after the last Ice Age. In addition, occasional hybridization withH. thunbergii in areas of sympatry in the central and southwestern Korean Peninsula may be one factor contributing the present-day high allozyme variation observed inH. hakuunensis.


Chinese/English Website promoting numerous herbal remedies.

 Day Lily 

1. For all kinds of mild bleeding:

Use 10 g root of day lily decocted in 100 ml water under slow fire for 15 minutes and serve as one would tea.

2. For general weakness:

Prepare 20 g dry day lily and immerse in warm water until it becomes tender. Discard hard ends and cut into small segments. Also prepare 100 g pork cut into shreds, 5 g black fungus immersed in warm water until softened. Thoroughly stir 2 hen's eggs. First stir-fry the egg and pork. Then separately fry the other ingredients together with vegetable oil, and mix the egg and add some other flavourings. Serve as a side dish. It can be applied constantly.

3. For boils, carbuncles (a collection of pus that forms inside the body) or mastitis (inflammation of the mammary gland or breast):

Pound 50 g fresh day lily and apply topically.
Dosage and Administration:
Flower buds are served raw or cooked. They taste somewhat like green beans.

Flowers are served raw or cooked. They can be dried and used as a thickener in soups. If the flowers are picked just as they start to wither they can be used as a condiment.

If the flowers are harvested when fully open they make a superb and very ornamental addition to the salad bowl.

The young shoots have a pleasant sweet flavor and make an excellent cooked vegetable, though older shoots quickly become tough and fibrous.
Cautions on Use:
Large quantities of the leaves are said to be halucinogenic. Blanching the leaves, though, could remove this hallucinatory component, as reported in 'Hemerocallis. Day Lilies.' (Batsford. 1992). This comprehensive book on the species does not make clear what it means by blanching. It could be excluding light from the growing shoots or immersing in boiling water.
Modern Researches:
Day lily contains asparagin, colchicine, iron, carbohydrates, vitamins A, B and C, protein and anthra-quinone A, B, C, D and F.

The juice of the roots is an effective antidote (counteracting poisons) in cases of arsenic poisoning. The root also has a folk history of use in the treatment of cancer - extracts from the roots have shown antitumour activity.

A tea made from the boiled roots is used as a diuretic.

The tough dried foliage is plaited into cord and used for making footwear.





Plants including Daylilies bloom at very specific times which only vary depending on the season's progression. A late spring, a cool early summer or lots of hot dry weather can effect the blooming timing of daylilies. Additionally, these seasonal variations can effect fruit and vegetable bearing.

Using Daylilies you can get a sense of how your season compares to other seasons and how it compares to other climate zones.

Stella D'Oro: Blooms here in Vermont in late June. Considered to be a marker for the beginning of the early season.



Here Olallie Early Snowfall blooms along with Campanula glomerata (Bellflower) the two always bloom in conjunction (around early July).


Here H. fulva blooming away at Olallie Daylily Garden July 12, 2015. The H. fulva has not yet bloomed here in Vermont for 2016




The daylily (Hemerocallis spp.) have been long used for cooking in China, Japan and Korea. There are enormous flower plantations on the island of Taiwan grown for the sole purpose of harvesting the flowers for cooking.

The daylily is virtually unused as a cooking ingredient in the United States.

Through our breeding efforts, we have begin to develop daylilies with interesting colors blooming at the end of June and the beginning of July. While peak season is usually considered to begin in mid July, we now have pushed peak season to early-mid July and soon I expect it will be early July. Here are some of our recent bloomers


Olallie Vernal Cherry: This is by far the earliest red we have, and amazingly saturated.

In fact we were very surprised to discover that on overcast days the color is a deep saturated

red that glows like a gem!



EB-22-9-01: This is our go to giant early daylily. Giant lemon yellow stars. These really put on a show in early June!


Here a mass of EB-22-9-01 blooms their little heads off. Great seed set too!



Vernal Tutone: Developed by Stanley Saxton this little bicolor really stands out in the garden

with it's two tone coloration.



Olallie Henry Bromell: One our earliest purples. Great saturated color for the beginning of the season.

1-6-25-2015: This striking bicolor has one other interesting attribute bracts (the leaves off the stem/scape)

that are almost 1 foot long1 This adds to the overall unusual look of this daylily.



3-09: Early eyezone creamy yellow with a light rose eyezone. Nice form and color!



41-09: Ruffled cream pink, exceptional form particularly this early in the season



4-09: This daylily is one of our favorites! While a little too gold for some I expect, the maroon eyezone is large with faint brush strokes as well, I expect great things from this daylily!



Unknown number 1: This gem popped up in one of my beds. I don't have anything identifying it yet

but is large and colorful for so early in the season!



Unknown number 2: This does have a number to ID it but I can't remember it. Wonderful triangular

blooms, great color and a good bud count. Wow!




Lastly but definitely not least! This unknown (for now) is amazing, blooms popping everywhere but a new set of scapes

of instant rebloom are appearing. The real question is will it rebloom yet again!

The color is quite nice too, sublte shades of pink and melon with faint markings too.